Monday, May 25, 2020
The question of why one should study geography is a valid question. Many around the world do not understand the tangible benefits of studying geography. Many might think that those who study geography have no career options in the field because most people do not know anyone who has the job title of Ã¢â¬Å"geographer.Ã¢â¬ Nonetheless, geography is a diverse discipline that can lead to a myriad of career options in areas ranging from business location systems to emergency management.Ã Study Geography to Understand Our Planet Studying geography can provide an individual with a holistic understanding of our planet and its systems. Those who study geography are better prepared to understand topics impacting our planet such as climate change, global warming, desertification, El Nino, water resource issues, among others. With their understanding of political geography, those who study geography are well-positioned to comprehend and explain global political issues that occur between countries, cultures, cities and their hinterlands, and between regions within countries. With instant global communications and media coverage of geopolitical hotspots around the world on twenty-four-hour news channels and on the Internet, the world might seem like it has gotten smaller. Yet centuries-old conflict and strife remain despite huge technological developments over the past few decades.Ã Studying Geographical Regions While the developed world has developed rather rapidly, the Ã¢â¬Å"developingÃ¢â¬ world, as disasters frequently remind us, has yet to benefit from many of those advances. Those who study geography learn about differences between world regions. Some geographers devote their studies and careers to learning and understanding a specific region or country of the world. They study the culture, foods, language, religion, landscape and all aspects of the region to become an expert. This type of geographer is desperately needed in our world for the better understanding of our world and its regions. Those who are experts in various Ã¢â¬Å"hotspotÃ¢â¬ regions of the world are certain to find career opportunities. Being a Well-Educated Global Citizen In addition to knowing about our planet and its people, those who choose to study geography will learn to think critically, research, and communicate their thoughts through writing and other means of communication independently. They will thus have skills that are valued in all careers. Finally, geography is a well-rounded discipline that provides students not only with ample career opportunities but it also provides students with knowledge about our rapidly-changing world and how humans are impacting our planet.Ã Importance of GeographyÃ Geography has been called the mother of all sciences, it was one of the first fields of study and academic disciplines developed as humans sought to find out what was on the other side of the mountain or across the sea.Ã Exploration led to the discovery of our planet and its amazing resources. Physical geographers study the landscapes, landforms, and the terrain of our planet while cultural geographers study out cities, our transportation networks, and our ways of life.Ã Geography is a fascinating discipline that combines knowledge of many fields to help scientists and researchers better understand this amazing planet.
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Stress Stress. Is there an effective way to cure stress? Stress is an integral part of everyday life, influencing, if not controlling happiness, productivity and health. The complete absence of any stress results in death. Stress is known to cause a variety of psychiatric disorders involving anxiert and depression. More common of which include posttraumatic stress disorder, amajor depression, generalized anxierty, and multiple personality disorders. Hopefully will attempt to explain ways to cure ones illnesss caused by Stress. Stress is an adaptive response. The more stress one puts on themselves the weaker their immune system then becomes. A weakened immune system will become susceptible to disease and injury. StressÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If the stressful situation is resolved, the stress symptoms vanish. If the stressful situation continues, however, a third stage, exhaustion, sets in, and the bodys adaptive energy runs out. This stage can continue until some vital organs are affected, and then disease or even death can occur. There are three types of stress, mental, physical, chemical. These different variations of stress all cause similar effects to ones body. Each of these stresses can come from many sources. Most of these have appeared as a primary threat in our environment. Mental stress occurs from a shock as severe as the death of a loved one or from a simple thing like a broken alarm clock making one late for work. Physical stress on the body can be caused by anything from not getting adequate sleep to a severe whiplash injury from a car accident. In addition, there is a chemical stress which may come from environmental pollution, the side affects of medications or even consumption of overly refined food. Compounding all this is the tension cycle, in which mental stress triggers physical stress or vice versa, leading to a downward spiral of health and happiness and an increasingly painful series of symptoms. Mental stress and Physical Stres s are linked due to the fact that if one has mental stress it can cause physical stress. Mans response to psychological stress differs little from sources of potential physical harm. Physical symptoms may include a headache, upset stomach, muscleShow MoreRelatedWord Stress in English1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLECTURE 4 Word stress in English 1. Nature of word stress 2. Place of word stress in English. Degrees of stress 3. Functions of the English stress 4. Tendencies of the English stress 5. Typology of accentual structures 1. The sequence of syllables in the word is not pronounced identically. The syllable or syllables which are uttered with more prominence than the other syllables of the word are said to be stressed or accented. Stress in the isolated wordRead MoreThe Role Of Personality And Perception With Stress1410 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStress is all in the mind Ã¢â¬Å"I cannot and should not be cured of my stress, but merely taught to enjoy it.Ã¢â¬ -Hans Selye. Stress is every day fact of life. We canÃ¢â¬â¢t avoid it. It is believed to account most types of disease and illness and affects all the dimension of life. The World Health Organization calls stress as Ã¢â¬Ëa global epidemicÃ¢â¬â¢.In fact, stress is not only desirable it is also essential to life. According to Cardwell et al. (2002), stress is defined as a gap between the perceived demands onRead MoreThe Effects Of Stress On A Person s Body And Mind1033 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesexperience stress at least once in their life. Many people tell other people they have a lot of stress in their life, but exactly what is stress. Actually, stress is a response of our body to any kind of threat or demand. The body s defenses kick in, when you sense danger, whether it is real or imagined. Stress is a part of life and people should learn how to manage it in order to be happy and joyful in their lives. Stress can cause physical effects to a person s body and mind. Mainly Stress is causedRead MoreWorking for Electrex Can Be a Challenge1563 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesencounter different types of people during their management career. Every employee is different in their own way but what makes them different is their personality. Personality of a person is a combination of feelings, opinions, attitudes, behaviours and activities which when it is combined together, it makes that person special. Working in a big company like Electrex is never easy because of the heavy workload that ones have to handle. In this situation, some employee might be having stress and thisRead MoreStress topic outline1033 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOutline Topic: Stress General Purpose: To Inform Specific Purpose: To inform my audience different types of stress and the different ways people cope with it. Thesis: From work stress to the stress of grieving there are different types of stress and different ways to cope with it. I. Introduction : Have you ever wanted to pull your hair out or just yell at someone because you have a lot of pressure on you? This is called stress. A. Reason to Listen: Stress can be a seriousRead MoreStress And Its Effect On Stress Essay881 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPsychology in my life, stress is; a group of behavioral, mental and physical processes occurring when events match or exceed the organismÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to respond in a healthy way. When we think about stress it comes across as something thatÃ¢â¬â¢s only negative, but stress in moderation can be good. This type of stress is known as being acute stress, itÃ¢â¬â¢s good and bad stress. When frequently experiencing acute stress for long periods at a time itÃ¢â¬â¢s becomes a little more sever stress know as episodic. AlthoughRead MoreStress And Stress On Stress1266 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhat exactly is stress and why do we feel it? Stress can be the way someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s brain responds to a demand no matter how big or small. Stress can be caused by something as simple as commuting to and from work or school on a daily basis; however, stress could also be something as big as marriage or buying a house. We all have our own amount of stress we can handle normally on a daily basis. Stress is a mental or emotional strain or tension due to very demanding circumstances. Stress may also be to giveRead MoreCauses of Stress Essay757 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCauses of Stress Introduction So, what causes the stress that can be so bad for you? Some people may have a nervous system that goes into a stress reaction more readily than others. This could be due to individual differences in genetics and brain chemistry. To try to understand stress better, we need to consider the psychological factors involved - emotional and cognitive (thinking) factors. Research has suggested that major stressors in our lives areRead MoreStress Management Techniques : Coping1498 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Stress Management Techniques: Coping in a World with Everlasting Stressors Stress is a well-known contributor to a degraded quality of life. Stress can put one into a state of despair, as well as cause many negative health effects. The different types of stress include acute stress, prolonged stress, and chronic stress. Stress is influenced by stressors, which are variables that cause stress to occur. In addition to there being several types of stress, there are many symptoms associated withRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Syndrome Essay1722 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages There are numerous different mental disorders that people are diagnosed with on an everyday basis. Some mental disorders are genetic, but yet other disorders come from the things that people encounter in life. One mental disorder that is being diagnosed more often every day is called Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome. This is a disorder that does not discriminate based on genetics, race, age, or even sex. This mental disorder occurs due to events in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. As everyone knows it is natural
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Gustaf Kossinna (1858-1931, sometimes spelled Gustav) was a German archaeologist and ethnohistorian who is widely perceived as having been a tool of the archaeology groupie and Nazi Heinrich Himmler, although Kossinna died during Hitlers rise to power. But thats not the whole story. Educated as a philologist and linguist at the University of Berlin, Kossinna was a late convert to prehistory and an ardent supporter and promoter of the Kulturkreise movementÃ¢â¬âthe explicit definition of cultural history for a given area. He was also a proponent for Nordische Gedanke (Nordic Thought), which could be crudely summarized as real Germans are descended from the pure, original Nordic race and culture, a chosen race who must fulfill their historical destiny; no one else should be allowed in. Becoming an Archaeologist According to a recent (2002) biography by Heinz GrÃ ¼nert, Kossinna was interested in ancient Germans throughout his career, although he started out as a philologist and historian. His principal teacher was Karl Mullenhoff, a professor of German philology specializing in Germanic Prehistory at the University of Berlin. In 1894 at the age of 36, Kossinna made the decision to switch to prehistoric archaeology, introducing himself to the field by giving a lecture on the history of archaeology at a conference in Kassel in 1895, which actually didnt go very well. Kossinna believed that there were only four legitimate fields of study in archaeology: theÃ history of the Germanic tribes, theÃ origin of the Germanic peoples and the mythical Indo-Germanic homeland, archaeological verification of the philological division into east and west Germanic groups, and distinguishing between Ã¢â¬â¹Germanic and Celtic tribes. By the start of the Nazi regime, that narrowing of the field had become a reality. Ethnicity and Archaeology Wedded to the Kulturkreis theory, which identified geographical regions with specific ethnic groups on the basis of material culture, Kossinnas philosophical bent lent theoretical support to the expansionist policies of Nazi Germany. Kossinna built an unarguably immense knowledge of archaeological material, in part by painstakingly documenting prehistoric artifacts in museums in several European countries. His most famous work was 1921s German Prehistory: A Pre-Eminently National Discipline. His most infamous work was a pamphlet published at the end of World War I, right after the new state of Poland was carved out of the German Ostmark. In it, Kossinna argued that Pomeranian face-urns found in Polish sites around the Vistula river were a Germanic ethnic tradition, and so Poland rightfully belonged to Germany. The Cinderella Effect Some scholars attribute the willingness of scholars like Kossinna to abandon all other archaeologies under the Nazi regime except for German prehistory to the Cinderella effect. Before the war, prehistoric archaeology suffered in comparison to classical studies: there was a general lack of funds, inadequate museum space, and an absence of academic chairs dedicated to German prehistory. During the Third Reich, high governmental officials in the Nazi party offered their gratifying attention, but also eight new chairs in German prehistory, unprecedented funding opportunities, and new institutes and museums. In addition, the Nazis funded open-air museums dedicated to German studies, produced archaeological film series, and actively recruited amateur organizations using a call to patriotism. But thats not what drove Kossinna: he died before all of that came true. Kossinna began reading, writing, and speaking about Germanic racist nationalist theories in the 1890s, and he became an avid supporter of racist nationalism at the end of World War I. By the late 1920s, Kossinna made aÃ connection with Alfred Rosenberg, who would become minister of culture in the Nazi Government. The upshot of Kossinnas work was a blossoming of emphasis on the prehistory of the Germanic peoples. Any archaeologist who did not study the prehistory of the Germanic people was derided; by the 1930s, the main society devoted to Roman provincial archaeology in Germany was considered anti-German, and its members came under attack. Archaeologists who did not conform to the Nazi idea of proper archaeology saw their careers ruined, and many were ejected from the country. It could have been worse: Mussolini killed hundreds of archaeologists who didnt obey his dictates about what to study. The Nazi Ideology Kossinna equated ceramic traditions and ethnicityÃ since he believed that pottery was most often the result of indigenous cultural developments rather than trade. Using the tenets of settlement archaeologyÃ¢â¬âKossinna was a pioneer in such studiesÃ¢â¬âhe drew maps showing the supposed cultural boundaries of the Nordic/Germanic culture, which extended over nearly all Europe, based on textual and toponymic evidence. In this manner, Kossinna was instrumental in creating the ethno-topography which became the Nazi map of Europe. There was no uniformity among the high priests of Nazism, however: Hitler mocked Himmler for focusing on the mud huts of the Germanic people; and while party prehistorians like Reinerth distorted the facts, the SS destroyed sites like Biskupin in Poland. As Hitler put it, all we prove by that is that we were still throwing stone hatchets and crouching around open fires when Greece and Rome had already reached the highest stage of culture. Political Systems and Archaeology As archaeologist Bettina Arnold has pointed out, political systems are expedient when it comes to their support of research that presents the past to the public: their interest is usually in a usable past. She adds that abuse of the past for political purposes in the present is not restricted to obviously totalitarian regimes like Nazi Germany. To that I would add: political systems are expedient when it comes to their support of any science: their interest is usually in a science that says what the politicians want to hear and not when it doesnt do that. Sources Arnold, Bettina. Ã¢â¬Å"The Past as Propaganda: Totalitarian Archaeology in Nazi Germany.Ã¢â¬ Ã Antiquity, vol. 64, no. 244, 1990, pp. 464Ã¢â¬â478.Arnold, Bettina. The power of the past: Nationalism and archaeology in 20th century Germany. Archaeologia Polona, vol. 35-36, 1998, pp. 237-253.Arnold, Bettina. ArierdÃ ¤mmerungÃ¢â¬â¢: race and archaeology in Nazi Germany. World Archaeology, vol. 38, no. 1, 2006, pp. 8-31.Boudou, Evert. 2005. Kossinna meets the Nordic Archaeologists. Current Swedish Archaeology, vol. 13, 2005, pp. 121-139.Cornell, P., Borelius, U., Kresa, D., and Backlund, T. Kossinna, the Nordische Gedanke, and Swedish Archaeology. Current Swedish Archaeology vol. 15-16, 2007-2008, pp. 37-59.Curta, Florin. Some remarks on ethnicity in medieval archaeology. Early Medieval Europe vol. 15, no. 2, 2007, pp. 159-185.Fehr, Hubert. Review of Gustaf Kossinna (1858Ã¢â¬â1931), Vom Germanisten zum PrÃ ¤historiker, Ein Wissenschaftler im Kaiserreich und in der Weimarer Republik, by Heinz GrÃ ¼nert. Bulletin of the History of Archaeology, vol. 14, no. 1, 2002, pp. 27-30.Mees, B. VÃ ¶lkische Altnordistik: The Politics of Nordic Studies in the German-Speaking Countries, 1926-45. Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society: 11th International Saga Conference 2Ã¢â¬â7 July 2000, University of Sydney: Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney. Sydney. 2000. pp. 316-326.Rebay-Salisbury, K.C. Thoughts in Circles: Kulturkreislehre as a Hidden Paradigm in Past and Present Archaeological Interpretations. Roberts, B.W., and Vander Linden, M., editors. Investigating Archaeological Cultures: Material Culture, Variability, and Transmission. New York, NY: Springer New York. 2011, pp. 41-59.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Background Research Throughout history, children have always worked, either as apprentices or servants. However, child labor reached a whole new scale during the time period of the Industrial Revolution. Throughout the time frame of late 1800s-early 1900s, children worked long hours in dangerous factory conditions for very little wages. They were considered useful as laborers because their small stature allowed them to be cramped into smaller spaces, and they could be paid less for their services. Many worked to help support their families, and by doing so, they forwent their education. Numerous nineteenth century reformers and labor groups sought to restrict child labor and to improve working conditions. The Industrial Revolution was aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The younger boys who worked at the mines were called breaker boys. They didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work in the mine itself, but sat on benches and picked out the bits of rock from the coal. Ã¢â¬Å"These children worked in the picking room, a crowded, high-ceilinged vault, crisscrossed with rickety catwalks and crooked stairs, lit only by a wall of grime-choked windowsÃ¢â¬ (Levine, Marvin J. Mines, Mills, and Canneries. Children for Hire: The Perils of Child Labor in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003. 21. Print.) Within factories, small children had to work fast at the machines, being very careful unless an unfortunate body part happens to get caught in the high-powered, dangerous machinery. For several long hours in rooms without fresh air, ventilation, and sometimes, no windows, the working conditions that the children suffered through were appalling. There are children who work in hazardous industries, risking accident and injury; there are others working in conditions that take a slower but definite toll on the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health (Basu, Kaushik, and Pham Hoang Van. The Economics of Child Labor The Economics of Child Labor (1998): 412-27. Print.). Many of the families that had children wo rking had not much choice in allowing their kids to do so. One person or even two people working wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been enough to support a whole family. Most of the children employed during this time period were working to provide income to their families. Ã¢â¬Å"As soon as a littleShow MoreRelatedChild Labor During The Industrial Revolution1934 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMaggie Luke Mrs. Nester English 4 15 December 2014 Child Labor in Britain during the Industrial Revolution Child labor was a cruel and unfair way of using children in unnecessary situations. It was debated for a countless number of years whether child labor was a social problem or a political problem. Children were responsible for completing very dangerous, rigorous, and demanding jobs. Most jobs for the children were completed in factories, farms, and coal mines. Subsequently, the working conditionsRead MoreIndustrialization Of Child Labor During The Industrial Revolution1603 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesprimarily negative consequences for society because of child labor, it was essentially a positive thing for society. IndustrializationÃ¢â¬â¢s positive effects were new laws to improve working conditions, production increased, and merchandise became cheaper. There were numerous negatives that the Industrial Revolution brought with it; nonetheless the positives out-weigh it in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Because of the child labor during the Industrial Revolution todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society currently h as laws to improve the workingRead MoreEssay Child Labor During The Industrial Revolution969 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDuring the 18 and beginning of the 19th century in certain regions of the U.S child labor made up more than 40 percent of the population (Wolensky). ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s almost half of the working population. Since the beginning of time children have always been known to help their families with domestic tasks. Most of these kids worked in factories because they were easy to control and paid less than adults. Kids earned less than half of what adults made in the work force. In these factories they usually cleanedRead MoreÃ¢â¬Å"the Horrifying Effects of Child Labor During the Industrial Revolution EraÃ¢â¬ 2220 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe world has had many great accomplishments but what people often fail to think about are the consequences of these great accomplishments. When the Industrial Revolution came to Britain, there was a high demand for labor to work in the various mills and mines because of the demand for production. Chimneysweepers also became common during this time. Because of this, families fled from their rural farms to industrialized cities in search of work. Children were often the workers of choice becauseRead MoreEffects Of Child Labor During The Industrial Revolution Versus Modern Europe1713 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEffects of Child Labor in the Industrial Revolution versus Modern Europe By: Lariah Thiel Ã¢â¬Æ' Child labor has been a very big problem since the Industrial Revolution. As the world began to industrialize, the demand for labor increased greatly. During the Industrial Revolution child labor became a very important aspect of everyday life because the demand for laborers had grown so much. Families were not only dependent on adults for money, but they were also dependent of their children. Some childrenRead MoreEffects of the Industrial Revolution727 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Industrial Revolution, lasting between the 18th and 19th century, profoundly affected the people of Europe, North America, and other regions of the world. The revolution produced new exciting technological innovations. As a result, the socioeconomic climate and cultural aspects of Europe and North America were altered in an unprecedented manner. Industrial opportunities also lured the population away from agrarian lifestyles to more urban populaces. The Industrial Revolution extensively changedRead MoreS econd Industrial Revolution1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSecond US Industrial Revolution, 1870 -1910 Darris Adkins Abstract In this brief paper, a description of two developments of industrialization that positively affected the United States and two developments that negatively affected the United States will be discussed. An analysis of whether or not industrialization was generally beneficial or detrimental to the lives of Americans and the history of the United States will be outlined. Second US Industrial Revolution, 1870 -1910 In this briefRead MoreThe Effects of the Industrial Revolution1508 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Effects of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution began in the eighteenth century marking the transformation of economic power and productivity. Not only was there concentration on agriculture, as their main source of an economy, and started to concern themselves with commerce, trade, and exploration of new technologies. Working toward great financial success to make a profit. Even though the machinery was new the main power source was human labor. Production took place in homesRead MoreChild Labour. . The Industrial Revolution (1760 To 1840)1134 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCHILD LABOUR The industrial revolution (1760 to 1840) was an exciting time, and while Britain and America were transforming modern society there was an incredibly high demand for labor. Children as young as 4 years old were working underpaid in factories to keep themselves and their poverty struck families alive. I will be exploring why it was that so many children were working in factories during the industrial revolution, and how they compare to the child labourers of todayRead MoreExploitation of Children during the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain1867 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDuring the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, Great Britain experienced a period of radical change and transformation. This era is referred to as the Industrial Revolution. It brought a surge of technological innovations, an increase in production, more world trade, and a rise in urban population. One of the most controversial and widely debated issues until today among historians is the use of child labor. Despite that this era led to massive economic growth and social development,
Title: Crozier Head, Saint Michael Trampling the Serpent Culture: early Christian Date: 2nd quarter in 13th century Provenience: Limoges, France Material: copper-gilt and champlevÃ¡ º » enamel Measurements: 10 Ã ¾ x 2 7/8 x 5 Ã ½ in. As a symbol of jurisdiction and authority of high ranking catholic prelates, the crozier or known as pastoral staff at times is inspired by the shepherdÃ¢â¬â¢s crook. It can be used as a walking stick for support in journeys and in churches before the introduction of seats. In this crozier head, Saint Michael known as an emblem of church militant and an archangel (high-ranking angel) is battling the serpent which is the demon or satan. This figure indicate the two very opposing force between the good and evil, andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A pastoral staff with crook head shape on the top was starting to emerge. This kind of pastoral staff was called a crozier. This luxurious material made type of pastoral staff was used until nowadays. Most of this kind of pastoral staff often carved with biblical character and always show two opposing force when they were fighting to each other. Saint Michael battling the demon serpent was the most popular decoration to be carved on the crozier because it was the perfect representation of good and evil. It may be true that Ã¢â¬Å"In art, he is most frequently shown with a sword, either battling with or standing in triumph over a dragon or the prostrate SatanÃ¢â¬ (Jones 178). Saint Michael is one of three archangels (the other two are Gabriel and Raphael) that was mentioned in the Holy Bible. He was known as the general of heaven, protector of chosen people in earth. In early Catholic church, people considered him as the defender of Christianity. He was also charged with the guidance of souls here below, to protect them from devilÃ¢â¬â¢s snares and to lead them to the eternal light (Englebert, 369). Saint Michael is a famous character among all Christian figures. He often gave vision to people and give solution to every problem. An appearance of him once occurred among the monks in French, who built a monastery under his name, Mont-Saint-Michael. He also appeared in the cave of mount gargano, southern Italy on may 8th 492 and until now that
Essay, Research Paper The whole narrative in Do the Right Thing took topographic point on an agonizingly hot summer twenty-four hours and dark in the vicinity of Bedford-Stuyvesant, a slum Black community. In that vicinity, three concerns dominate: a Black wireless station, a Korean food market shop, and an Italian pizza shop. In a infinite where the occupants were predominately black, the two foreign concerns strive to unify in and coexist. They seemed to win at first, but so the heat have strained tensenesss to the breakage point and a demagogue at the terminal became the accelerator for a calamity that had lead to a racial clang between the good established Sal s Pizzeria and the comparatively new Korean food market shop. Spike Lee, in the whole class of the film, did non clearly province what is the right thing but he had tried to integrate both Martin Luther King s no force and Malcolm X s force if needfully. We will write a custom essay sample on Do The Right Thing By Spike Le or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Each character in the film has their ain position of making the right thing. Mookie believes doing money is the right thing, Sal believes maintaining the concern running, Radio Raheem believes listening to his ain music Public Enemy, Smiley selling his images of Malcolm X and King. Even though each believes what they did is right, non everyone agrees. Pino doesn T feel like maintaining the household concern and even being in a black vicinity is right, no 1 except for Radio Raheem himself likes Public Enemy, everyone Tells Smiley to sleep together off, etc. The lone clip when every black individual agreed to one common end was when they were joined to avenge the decease of Radio Raheem and planned to destruct all foreigners, viz. the Korean and Italian concern and households. Smiley is portrayed as an annoyance, bumbling individual who tries to sell the same image of Malcolm X and King to everyone he encounters. He seemed to look up to both sufferers and all through the film seemed to understand their positions and point of views. At the terminal though, he became one of the three who started a boycott against Sal s pizza shops with the stupidest ground for person dissing his irritation. This shows that he does non understand at all the positions of King, nor even Malcolm X, since no injury except verbally was committed against him. He portrays Lee s position that people know the being of mom ny ideals and positions of people, but non many can carry through that thought. He was the lone one non to be arrested after the battle between Radio Raheem and Sal, but so, he was the one to trap the image of Malcolm X and King on the burnt out wall of Sal s pizza shop shows that he still did non hold on the thoughts of the two, and still lived in his ain phantasy and esteem. Mookie is a cardinal and interesting character all through the film. He is depicted as a lazy, irresponsible individual with a set end to do money. He seemed to esteem Sal and tried to befriend the foreigners. He merely seemed to alter after the incident when he thought Sal was seeking to bed his sister and that is what I think led to his actions before the public violence get downing it by throwing the rubbish can at the pizza shop. It may look that it has been an unneeded act of force but so, it can be interpreted as him seeking to acquire back to his people after working for a white individual. Mookie s action after the public violence shows that he hold detached himself from Sal s household wholly, and he got back to his household, which symbolizes him being back into the black community. Not accepting all the money from Sal shows that he still has some self-aware but besides gives an thought that he doesn T privation to owe Sal anything more. The movie shows the full extent of the down conditions of the interior metropolis by demoing the incompetency of its occupants. The occupants have much pent up defeat of their ain state of affairs and choler towards everything. The heat wave merely decline the state of affairs and they are all waiting for a ground when all their defeat and choler can detonate. Sal, unfortunately, gave them the chance by disregarding the menace and non seting up images of black famous persons on his wall of celebrity. This movie, I believe, teaches us the thought of labored relationships and force one time pent up choler and defeat got out of manus. Spike Lee further emphasizes his point by demoing us the expressions of Malcolm X and King at the terminal, giving the viewing audiences a pick where one can take between peace and force. From the movie before, one can see that both picks may take to dire effects if the people as a whole would non encompass the same ideal, but that would hold to be left to the people to take.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Teamwork is indispensable to the smooth running of many undertakings. administrations and companies. Much research has been conducted into the effectivity of squads and their parts to organizational success. This essay considers one peculiar squad dwelling of two pupil nurses ( members A and B ) and 4 pupil radiographers ( members C. D. E. and F ) . all 3rd twelvemonth degree-level. whose undertaking was to bring forth a posting for appraisal over a one hebdomad period. Theory and theoretical accounts of teamwork will be used to discourse all facets of this squad including squad functions. communicating. struggle and decision-making. Conclusions will so be drawn as to how the squad could hold been more effectual in their completion of the undertaking. Throughout. more general considerations of squads and teamwork in administrations will be made where appropriate. Interprofessionalism will besides be considered. This essay will utilize the footings squad and group interchangeably with the same significance. Method The information for this essay has been gathered by the writer through personal experience. As the writer was portion of the squad concerned this is non a genuinely experimental survey. It does. nevertheless. let the writer to hold more penetration into the personal positions and feelings of the squad members. A brooding journal was kept by the writer during this hebdomad entering all treatments. statements and sentiments to guarantee lucidity when remembering these. Many other members of the squad besides discussed their positions with the writer. A figure of beginnings have been consulted for the background information and theory related to teamwork. BelbinÃ¢â¬â¢s self-perception stock list trial has been identified as a utile tool for measuring members of a squad and the balance of personalities and functions within. Each squad member completed this trial and the consequences are considered in item and with mention to other theories. Discussion 1 What are squads? A squad is defined as:A group of people who make different parts towards the accomplishment of a common end. ( Pritchard A ; Pritchard. 1994. p. 13 ) . The indispensable features of a squad have been described by Gilmore et Al ( in Pritchard A ; Pritchard. 1994 ) as: The members of a squad portion a common intent which brings them together and steer their actions. Each member of the squad has a clear apprehension of his or her ain maps. and recognises common involvements. The squad works by pooling cognition. accomplishments and resources and all members portion duty for the result. The effectivity of a squad is related to its capableness to transport out its work and to pull off itself as an independent group of people. 2 Types of Teams Groups can be defined as:Formal: formed for a specific intent with regulations. ordinances and norms. Informal: where the intent is less precise.Psychological: rank is dependent on people interacting with each other. ( Pettinger. 2000. p. 136 ) . The squad discussed in this essay is clearly a formal group as it was constructed by the class leaders and had a clear end to accomplish ( bring forthing a posting ) . 3 Team Size There is a balance to be attained between squad size. part and engagement. The larger a group is. the more likely it is to divide into subgroups. nevertheless. a big group can pull on more cognition and expertness. Steiner ( in Millward and Jeffries. 2001 ) suggested that as group size additions single member attempt declines as the less each member feels responsible for the result. In this squad there were 6 members which proved ideal for the production of the posting as activities could easy be divided between the squad leting everyone an equal part. The squad did. nevertheless. divide into two subgroups of pupil nurses and pupil radiographers at the beginning of the hebdomad. It is non felt that this was due to the size of the squad but more likely personality and professional differences. 4 Why usage teamwork? Teamwork is critical to wellness and societal attention as accomplishments and cognition can be used more efficaciously to supply the best patient result ( Newson. 2006 ) . Research has shown that teamwork additions efficiency ( Thylefors et al. 2005 in Newson. 2006 ) . A squad can pool cognition and accomplishments and. if good motivated. make energy increasing a teamÃ¢â¬â¢s efficiency beyond that of the persons. Modern positions on teamwork besides consider the satisfaction of the work force by going more independent and cut downing hierarchal constructions ( Ovretveit et al. 1997 ) . 5 Team Development The most normally used theoretical account to discourse squad development is TuckmanÃ¢â¬â¢s ( 1965 ) ( in Huczynski A ; Buchanan. 2001 ) forming. ramping. norming and executing theoretical account. However. the squad concerned more closely followed the CogÃ¢â¬â¢s laddermodel ( see appendix 1. for full description ) ( Walton. 1984 ) . 1. Polite phase ( twenty-four hours 1 ) The initial debuts of the squad members took topographic point during a java interruption. nevertheless. the undertaking was non clearly discussed at this phase and so functions were non yet defined. The members worked at a distance from each other to finish a hoarded wealth Hunt undertaking. 2. Why are we here? ( twenty-four hours 2 ) The ends were established and two subgroups ( pupil nurses. A and B and pupil radiographers. C. D. E and F ) emerged. 3. Command for power ( twenty-four hours 2/3 )Conflict and competition within the group prevailed. At this phase two members of the group. A and C. became identifiable as leaders. 4. Constructive stage ( twenty-four hours 3/4 )The squad did finally make this phase with activities being divided amongst members and all members take parting. Through doggedness and the acknowledgment that the posting was an assessed piece of work this squad was motivated plenty to get the better of old struggle and advancement. 5. Espirit ( twenty-four hours 4 ) By the concluding twenty-four hours of this undertaking the squad had developed a high degree of coherence. As all members were seen to be lending every bit to the undertaking and the posting was eventually coming together any struggle evaporated and was replaced by motive and satisfaction in accomplishment. 6 Team Functions BelbinÃ¢â¬â¢s Inventory of Self-Perception is one of the most widely used analyses for squad functions ( Mullins. 2005 ) . ( See appendix 2. for a full list of function descriptions ) . Eight squad functions are identified and organize a comprehensive list of all utile squad member features. with allowable failings. The members of the surveies squad performed this trial:| |A |B |C|D |E |F | % Total | |Company Worker ( CW ) |15 |11 |17 |6 |15 |22 |21 | |Chairperson ( CH ) |2 |20 |3 |0 |10 |0 |8 | |Shaper ( SH ) |35 |6 |29 |6 |5 |3 |20 | |Plant ( PL ) |1 |5 |0 |29 |0 |9 |10 | |Resources Investigator |4 |2 |3 |1 |0 |2 |3 | | ( RI ) | | | | | | | | |Motivator-Evaluator ( ME ) |12 |8 |10 |10 |0 |3 |10 | |Team Worker ( TW ) |1 |15 |2 |4 |10 |25 |14 | |Completer-Finisher ( CF |0 |3 |6 |14 |30 |6 |14 | | |SH/CW |CH/TW |SH/CW |PL/CF |CF/CW |TW/CW | | Surveies frequently show team members as belonging to their two favoured functions e. g. A as a shaper/ company worker ( SH/CW ) . Using this method the squad lacked a resource research worker and monitor-evaluator. However. if the tonss of the whole squad are represented as per centums so president ( CH ) and resource research worker ( RI ) are the least delineated functions: Company Worker ( CW )This was the most good represented function within the squad. 21 % . with four of the six members holding this as their secondary feature. A company worker is able to cover with the practical demands of a state of affairs and work good with a cross-section of people ( Rowe. 1996 ) . This makes them an indispensable member of the squad and frequently really promotable within administrations ( Belbin. 1981 ) . Shaper ( SH )The function of leading is frequently taken by the maker who can drive the squad towards the end ( Belbin. 1981 ) . However. this squad contained two dominant makers. A and C. who both attempted to take up the leading function. Belbin discusses how this can do struggle until one member suppresses these features as happened here. with A. Teamworker ( TW )This function was represented by two members. B and F. The features displayed were sociableness but a low laterality. Although TWs can be viewed as supplying merely a supportive function they are of import in a squad such as this with strong SH features to help morale and cooperation ( Belbin. 1981 ) . Completer Ã¢â¬â Finisher ( CF )It is of import for a squad to hold the CF function represented in order to help the coating of a undertaking ( Rowe. 1996 ) . Member E. who had the highest mark as a CF surely encouraged the group along when staggering and was really concerned with the clip restrictions on the undertaking. It is possible that without this member the squad would non hold completed the undertaking until the concluding twenty-four hours. Plant ( PL )Merely one squad member. D. demonstrated this as one of their top features and this represented 1 % of the squad as a whole. A PL is originative. although needs another function to pull out their thoughts ( Rowe. 1996 ) . In this squad. D. was non vocal with their thoughts until towards the terminal of the undertaking when many little determinations were finalised by the CF. E. promoting D to be forthcoming. Monitor Ã¢â¬â Evaluator ( ME )This function was represented by 10 % of the entire although no single held this as their primary or secondary feature. This was non peculiarly to the hurt of the group as the MEÃ¢â¬â¢s attributes lie in strategic planning and decelerate careful consideration of determinations ( Belbin. 1981 ) which did non use in this week-long undertaking. Chairperson ( CH )Merely one member. B. demonstrated CH as their function within this squad. Rowe ( 1996 ) suggests CHs do non work good with SHs and as this squad had two strong SHs. B tended to stamp down any leading qualities and deferred to their interpersonal accomplishments besides represented by their secondary function. TW. Resource Investigator ( R )RIs can frequently acquire a undertaking underway by making an initial enthusiasm ( Rowe. 1996 ) and utilizing all information available to reply any inquiries ( Belbin. 1981 ) . This teamÃ¢â¬â¢s deficiency of an RI may hold contributed to the slow start made on this undertaking. 7 Communication Communication within a squad is critical to guarantee effectual on the job pattern. keep relationships between persons and hence increase motive and morale ( Stott A ; Walker. 1995 ) . The ideal form of communicating is an unfastened flow of interaction with all members pass oning with others: ( Stott A ; Walker. 1995. p. 271 ) However. in the studied squad the communicating form was surely non ideal in the early phases and could be more accurately represented as follows: The squad had split into two subgroups. A and B ( pupil nurses ) and C. D. E and F ( pupil radiographers ) with communicating between the two groups about entirely by their unofficial leaders. A and C. By the terminal of the hebdomad. holding over-come some struggle. the communicating form was really similar to the ideal. Clark ( 2003 ) states that in effectual squads communication between the leader and squad members is unfastened. clear and direct. Although in this squad there was no formal leader. C. clearly established themselves as the unofficial leader most likely because they were the most effectual at showing this carnival. unfastened and decisive communicating. 8 Conflict Loxley ( 1997 ) ( in Barrett et Al. 2005 ) refers to conflict as being interwoven with interprofessional coaction. Conflict can ensue from a figure of societal and professional factors:AgeGenderEthnicityFamily state of affairsValuessPrecedencesApproachsExpectationsCovering with struggle is uncomfortable and hard and can ensue in squads shaming togetherness or utilizing turning away techniques as a protection mechanism. Establishing land regulations such as those suggested by Drinka and Clark ( 2000 ) ( see appendix 3. ) early on can avoid struggle and had this squad used these possibly effectivity and surely morale would hold improved. Group struggle can be utile as without it points of position can be masked and good solutions non made. Clark ( 2003 ) besides suggests that the more inhibited members of are group with feel more defeat as they tend to stamp down their struggle. This was decidedly apparent in the squad concerned as D. E and F would non show their defeats to the whole squad but merely discussed them with their unofficial leader. C. in private. This resulted in more struggle within the squad as C attempted to vocalize the sentiments and concerns of D. E and F to the whole squad. as A proverb this as C being over-opinionated and became really defensive as a consequence. C managed to decide this struggle state of affairs by staying composure. admiting AÃ¢â¬â¢s positions and rationally explicating why. although the thoughts were good. the squad should see an alternate way. By doing A warrant their sentiments and doing them believe of ways of work outing jobs instead than merely saying them C gained the regard of the whole squad and became the unofficial squad leader. with even A accepting this state of affairs. 9 Decision Ã¢â¬â Making Decisions by groups can be made in a figure of ways:By deficiency of responseBy authorization regulationBy bulk regulationBy bulk regulation ( voting/ polling )By consensusBy consentaneous ballot( Schein. 1969 in La Monica. 1990 ) . The squad concerned made their determinations utilizing a figure of these methods. Decisions made by Ã¢â¬Ëlack of responseÃ¢â¬â¢ resulted in negative feelings of ego and towards other members when thoughts were bypassed in favor of others. No determinations were entirely made by Ã¢â¬Ëauthority ruleÃ¢â¬â¢ . although as many members were loath to aerate their positions within the whole squad state of affairs it may hold appeared to an perceiver that this happened. However. this was more like Ã¢â¬Ëmajority ruleÃ¢â¬â¢ as the quieter members of the group ( D. E and F ) had discussed their sentiments with C who so voiced them. In the concluding phases of this undertaking determinations were made by consensus as more members of the squad were relaxed in the whole group puting and all members were motivated in the undertaking at manus. Decisions were discussed more openly with all members instead than in the two subgroups and concluding determinations were of course arrived at wi thout any trouble. Hayes ( 1991 ) discusses how the importance of an person to acquire their preferable solution adopted by the group can go more of import to them than guaranting the best determination is made. This phenomenon was clear in the studied group as A became rather aggressive and confrontational in their efforts to hold their solution accepted by the squad. A figure of members. D. E and F. found this peculiarly intimidating and would hold submitted to AÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts. although they did non hold their virtue. had it non been for C. C used self-asserting behavior and logical treatment to avoid the incorrect determination being made. However. as A had built up the importance of holding their thoughts adopted so much. when they were non A became withdrawn from the group and appeared rejected. 10 Interprofessional Working Collaboration between assorted subjects is of import within health care in order to supply a consistent. high criterion of patient attention ( Rowe. 1996 ) . In order for multidisciplinary squads to be effectual the administration and direction demands to be in topographic point. but more significantly there must be common regard and apprehension for each professionalÃ¢â¬â¢s values. position. accomplishments and cognition ( Rowe. 1996 ) . It has been suggested ( Millward A ; Jeffries. 2001 ) that some healthcare squads exist in name merely and make non demo grounds of collaborative working underpinned by shared ends. It could be argued that possibly nurses have more continuity of attention in their occupations and so had a more methodical but slower attack to this undertaking. The pupil radiographers appeared to be more task-driven and concerned with the clip restraints and so frequently favoured speedy decision-making over drawn-out treatments. possibly to the hurt of doing the right determination. In the terminal it was the radiographersÃ¢â¬â¢ determination that was followed through and their motive by clip forced the nurses to work more rapidly ensuing in completion in progress of the deadline. Beattie ( in Soothill et Al. 1995 ) discusses how tribalism of professions is a barrier to effectual teamwork as it can be seen as an onslaught on traditional boundaries and in some cases can increase tribalism. Therefore an involuntariness to take part as portion of a multiprofessional squad can develop. as persons attempt to protect their individuality as a member of one peculiar professional Ã¢â¬ËtribeÃ¢â¬â¢ . Decision It is of import to recognize and value single functions to promote the development of a balanced squad and increase individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction by leting them to show their peculiar strengths and accomplishments ( Newson. 2006 ) . Confusion within the squad can besides be reduced and effectivity increased if all functions are represented every bit. Although there were differences and struggle between the two professions within this squad it is felt that these were due to personality instead than professional differences. Although it could be argues that it is exactly these personality traits that cause persons to take the different professions in the first topographic point. Atwal and Caldwell ( 1996 ) identifies assertiveness and assurance as indispensable accomplishments for an effectual squad member. This was borne out within the studied squad as the more inhibited members felt frustrated as they did non show their positions. This essay has identified many countries for betterment with the squad concerned and suggests methods for usage in the hereafter to increase the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s effectivity. Chiefly. if the squad had spent more clip sing themselves as a squad and how they would work as such instead than leaping consecutive to the undertaking so many of the jobs would non hold occurred. Mentions Atwal. A. Caldwell. K. ( 2006 ) Ã¢â¬ËNursesÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptual experiences of multidisciplinary squad work in acute health-careÃ¢â¬â¢ . International Journal of Nursing. 12. pp. 359-365. Barrett. G. Sellman. D. Thomas. J. ( ed. ) ( 2005 ) Interprofessional working in wellness and societal attention. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Belbin. M. ( 1981 ) Management squads. London: Heinemann. Clark. CC. ( 2003 ) Group leading accomplishments. New York: Springer Printing Company. Hayes. J. ( 1991 ) Interpersonal Skills. London: Harper Collins. Huczynski. A. Buchanan. D. ( 2001 ) Organizational behavior. 4th edn. London: Prentice-Hall. La Monica. E. ( 1990 ) Management in wellness attention. London: Macmillan. Millward. LJ. Jeffries. N. ( 2001 ) Ã¢â¬ËThe squad study: a tool for wellness attention squad developmentÃ¢â¬â¢ . Journal of Advanced Nursing. 35 ( 2 ) . pp. 276-287. Mullins. LJ. ( 2005 ) Management and organizational behavior. London: Prentice-Hall. Newson. P. ( 2006 ) Ã¢â¬ËParticipate efficaciously as a squad memberÃ¢â¬â¢ . Nursing and Residential Care. 8 ( 12 ) pp. 541-543. Ovretveit. J. Mathias. P. Thompson. T. ( ed. ) ( 1997 ) Interprofessional working for wellness and societal attention. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Pettinger. R. ( 2000 ) Organisational behavior. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Pritchard. P. Pritchard. J. ( 1994 ) Teamwork for primary and shared att ention. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rowe. H. ( 1996 ) Ã¢â¬ËMultidisciplinary teamwork Ã¢â¬â myth or mysteryÃ¢â¬â¢ . Journal of Nursing Management. 4. pp. 93-101. Soothill. K. Mackay. L. Webb. C. ( 1995 ) Interprofessional dealingss in wellness attention. London: Edward Arnold. Stott. K. Walker. A. ( 1995 ) Teams teamworking and teambuilding. London: Prentice-Hall. Walton. M. ( 1984 ) Management and managing. London: Harper and Row. Bibliography Pearson. P. Spencer. J. ( ed. ) ( 1997 ) Promoting teamwork in primary attention. London: Arnold. Walshe. K. Smith. J. ( erectile dysfunction ) ( 2006 ) Healthcare direction.Berkshire: Open University Press. Maginn. BK. Harris. RJ. ( 1980 ) Ã¢â¬ËEffects of awaited rating on single brainstorming performanceÃ¢â¬â¢ . Journal of Applied Psychology. 65 ( 2 ) . pp. 219-225. Mickan. SM. Rodger. SA. ( 2005 ) Ã¢â¬ËEffective wellness attention squads: a theoretical account of six features developed from shared perceptionsÃ¢â¬â¢ . Journal of Interprofessional Care. 19 ( 4 ) . pp. 358-370. Hornby. S. ( 1993 ) Collaborative Care. London: Blackwell Scientific Publicaitons. Belbin. M. ( 1993 ) Team functions at work. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. Hutchings. S. Hall. J. Lovelady. B. ( 2003 ) Teamwork. Bicester: Speechmark. Miller. C. Freeman. M. Ross. N. ( 2001 ) Interprofessional pattern in wellness and societal attention. London: Arnold. Miller. C. Ross. N. Freeman. M. ( 1999 ) Shared acq uisition and clinical teamwork: new waies in instruction for multiprofesisonal pattern. London: The English Board for Nursinf. Midwifery and Health Visiting. Hannagan. T. ( 2002 ) Management constructs and patterns. 3rd edn. London: Prentice-Hall. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â